We will examine the square discrete exponentiation map and its properties. The square discrete exponentiation map is a variation on a commonly seen problem in cryptographic algorithms. This paper focuses on understanding the underlying structure of the functional graphs generated by this map. Specifically, this paper focuses on explaining the in-degree of graphs of safe primes, which are primes of the form p = 2q + 1, where q is also prime.
Wood, A, "The Square Discrete Exponentiation Map" (2011). Mathematical Sciences Technical Reports (MSTR). 9.