The number of walks from one vertex to another in a finite graph can be counted by the adjacency matrix. In this paper, we prove two theorems that connect the graph Laplacian with two types of walks in a graph. By defining two types of walks and giving orientation to a finite graph, one can easily count the number of the total signs of each kind of walk from one element to another of a fixed length.
"Super-walk Formulae for Even and Odd Laplacians in Finite Graphs,"
Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal: Vol. 18:
1, Article 16.
Available at: https://scholar.rose-hulman.edu/rhumj/vol18/iss1/16