The directed graph of a ring is a graphical representation of its additive and multiplicative structure. Using the directed edge relationship (a,b) → (a+b,a ⋅ b), one can create a directed graph for every ring. This paper focuses on the structure of the sources in directed graphs of commutative rings with identity, with special concentration in the finite and reduced cases.
Professor Michael Axtell, Department of Mathematics, University of St. Thomas
Ang, Christopher and Shulte, Alex
"Directed Graphs of Commutative Rings with Identity,"
Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal: Vol. 14
, Article 7.
Available at: http://scholar.rose-hulman.edu/rhumj/vol14/iss1/7